1.- Sorry I'm late.
A.You are welcome.
B.It's a pleasure.
2.- We are going to have a singing party tonight. Would you like to join us?
A.I'm afraid not, because I have to go to an important meeting.
B.Of course not. I have no idea.
C.No, I can't.
D.That's all set.
3.- Would you like to go to the concert with us this evening?
A.No, I already have plans.
B.I'd love to, but I'm busy tonight.
C.No, I really don't like being with you.
D.I'm ill, so I shouldn't go out.
4.- Must I take a taxi?
- No, you ________ . You can take my car.
A.had better to
D.don't have to
5.- Could I speak to Don Watkins, please?
B.Oh, how are you?
The word horsepower(马力) was first used two hundred years ago. (200年前“马力”这个词首次使用。) James Watt had made the first widely used steam(蒸气)engine. He had no way of telling people exactly how powerful it was, for at that time there were no units for measuring(测量)power.
Watt decided to find out how much work one strong horse could do in one minute. He called that unit one horsepower. With this unit he could measure the work his steam engine could do.
He discovered that a horse could lift a 3,300-pound weight 10 feet into the air in one minute. His engine could lift a 3,300-pound weight 100 feet in one minute.
Because his engine did ten times as much work as the horse, Watt called it a ten horsepower engine.
6.The passagesays that Watt made the first widely used steam engine.
7.Watt made up a unit of measurement based on the strength of a horse.
8.Watt wanted to find a way to lift a 3300-pound weight.
9.One horsepower would equal the weight a horse could lift.
10.The title of the passageis "How the Term Horsepower Came into Being".
What makes a person a scientist? (是什么使一个人成为科学家?) Does he have ways or tools of learning that are different from those of others? The answer is “no”. It is not the tools a scientist uses but how he uses these tools that makes him a scientist. You will probably agree that knowing how to use a power is important to a carpenter. You will probably agree, too, that knowing how to investigate, how to discover information, is important to everyone. The scientist, however, goes one step further, he must be sure that he has a reasonable answer to his questions and that his answer can be confirmed by other persons. He also works to fit the answers he gets to many questions into a large set of ideas about how the world works.
The scientist’s knowledge must be exact. There is no room for half right or right just half the time. He must be as nearly right as the conditions permit. What works under one set of conditions at one time must work under the same conditions at other times. If the conditions are different, any changes the scientist observes in a demonstration must be explained by the changes in the conditions. This is one reason that investigations are important in science. Albert Einstein, who developed the Theory of Relativity, arrived at this theory through mathematics. The accuracy of his mathematics was later tested through investigations, and Einstein’s ideas were shown to be correct. A scientist uses many tools for measurements. Then the measurements are used to make mathematical calculations that may test his investigations.
11.What makes a scientist according to the passage? ________
A.The tools he uses.
B.The way he uses his tools.
C.His ways of learning.
D.The various tools he uses.
12.The underlined part in the passage shows_______.
A.the importance of information
B.the importance of thinking
C.the difference between scientists and ordinary people
D.the difference between carpenters and people with other jobs
13.A sound scientific theory should be one that _________.
A.works not only under one set of conditions at one time, but also under the same conditions at other times
B.does not allow any changes even under different conditions
C.can be used for many purposes
D.leaves no room for improvement
14.The author quotes the case of Albert Einstein to illustrate __________.
A.that measurements are keys to success in science
B.that accuracy of mathematics
C.that investigations are important in science
D.that the mathematical calculations may test his investigations
15.What is the main idea of the passage? ________
A.The theory of relativity.
B.Exactness is the core of science.
C.Scientists are different from ordinary people.
D.Exactness and ways of using tools are the keys to the making of a scientist.
16.When Laura finally arrived she apologized _______ so late.
A.for to come
B.that she was coming
17.Samuel Clemens, ________ as Mark Twain, was one of the most famous American writers.
B.to be known
18.She is not only my classmate ________ also my good friend.
19.Tom is so talkative. I'm sure you'll soon get tired _______ him.
20.He _______ lives in the house where he was born.
Susan Cleveland is the young president of a candy company in the city of Chicago.( 苏珊克利夫兰是芝加哥市里一家糖果公司的年轻总裁。) Her father began the company in the 1960's. He died three years ago. Now, the company belongs to Susan.
Susan, however, did not have any jobs before becoming head of the company. She just finished the college. The employees became even more concerned during Susan's first months on the job. Mr. Cleveland had been a __21__ leader. But Susan permitted many employees to make their own __22__. One employee said, "Old Mr. Cleveland always told us what to do. He kept people on a short leash. But the company did well. What does a "short leash" mean?A leash is a kind of rope. We use a leash to walk our pet dogs. The leash keeps the dog from __23__ away or getting into trouble.
Keeping a person on a short leash means keeping him or her under close control. The person can't make many decisions for himself or herself. Ms. Cleveland does not keep her workers on a short leash. __24__, she encourages them to get better ways to do business. For example, her secretary proposed an idea. She said the company should offer a sum of money as a prize to the best student in the high school near the factory. The winner could use the prize money to study at a university. Mr. Cleveland appreciated the idea. After the prize was announced, people who lived in the area of the factory began to buy __25__ of the company's candy. Local newspapers wrote about the competition. Business improved.
Ms. Cleveland made her secretary the company's first Director of Public Relations. The former secretary was very pleased.
26.I used the bag to protect my face from the smoke and heat.
27.Each year some of his money is given to the best scientists and writers of the world.
28.Fires may do more damage than the earthquakes(地震).
29.This box can hold more books than that one.
30.I'm thinking about a visit to Paris.
31.I slept soundly all night.
My hometown is Haimen, which is not far from Shanghai. Haimen is a modern city. There are lots of high buildings in it. Most of us live in flats because we can be close to our friends. My hometown/It is a beautiful city. On either side of the roads, there are some big trees and nice flowers. The roads are also very clean, which makes people happy and comfortable. The weather here is very nice. I like autumn best, for it’s neither hot nor cold but very cool. I love Haimen. Welcome to my hometown.